An easy fix here – assign more RAM to your VM! 512MB wasn’t enough for me, 1024MB was.
For a while, i’ve wanted to create a working always-on VPN from my phone back to my internal network. Partly to be able to access my network resources from anywhere, but also to provide additional security while out and about. WiFi hotspots are well known for their weaknesses, but increasingly mobile data connections are also at risk, with most mobile providers required to keep connection logs and also other instances of mobile providers tampering with data and adding tracking cookies.
For the purposes of this article, we’re going to use Android 5.0.1 as our VPN client and Ubuntu 14.04 LTS as our VPN host. However, the steps in this article should also be applicable to other versions of Android, iOS devices and other Linux based distributions. A number of VPN protocols exist, but this article will use IPSEC – a widely adopted standard. Other protocols are available, but their security and compatibility varies. The key requirements for this project are;
- Security – the VPN implementation must not use weak cryptographic standards.
- Compatibility – The VPN implementation must be available out of the box on the client device.
- Always-on – The VPN implementation must be supported in an Always-on fashion, prohibiting any data from flowing until the connection is established.
When these requirements are applied to our Android client, this limits us to using either an IPSEC or L2TP over IPSEC VPN. For simplicity, we’ll use a pure IPSEC solution.
IPSEC is highly versatile and supports a huge range of encryption protocols and authentication methods. This article will aim to create a simple implementation though and use a pre-shared key with usernames and passwords for authentication. Later articles will build on this to add certificate based authentication. The aim is to get a simple but reasonably secure implementation working first.
Originally, I wanted to get this working on my OpenWRT based router, but due to the complex iptables firewall and NAT arrangements, I was unable to get traffic to leave the router. Instead, a Ubuntu VM inside my network is handling the connectivity.
Diagrams always make things easier to understand!
Arguably, this diagram is somewhat simplified. For example, the client has a public IP. On almost all mobile networks, you’ll have an RFC 1918 non-routable IP and go through some form of NAT in order to reach the internet. Historically, this presented an issue for IPSEC VPNs which assume both endpoints have a publicly routable IP. However, more recent implementations have the ability to encapsulate IPSEC packets to make them more friendly to NAT. This is also applicable to our server, which is also in a RFC 1918 non-routable IP address space.
Router Port and Protocol Forwarding
As our server is behind a router performing NAT, our client won’t be able to connect unless we tell the router which ports to forward. Ensure you’ve assigned your server a static IP address and forward the following ports and protocols.
- Port 500 UDP
- Port 4500 UDP
- IP Protocol 50 (ESP)
- IP Protocol 51 (AH)
If you can’t forward IP Protocols, it shouldn’t pose a problem – most IPSEC VPNS will fall back instead to NAT-T over UDP Port 4500.
- Install the strongswan package, along with the plugins xauth-generic, dhcp and farp by running apt-get install strongswan strongswan-plugin-xauth-generic strongswan-plugin-farp strongswan-plugin-dhcp .
The auth-generic plugin allows us to use xauth for authentication, the farp plugin allows our client to appear as a normal host on the remote network and the DHCP plugin allows the client to be assigned an IP from the remote network’s DHCP server rather than randomly assigning an IP from a set pool and hoping that it doesn’t collide!
- Edit /etc/ipsec.conf to read as follows;
This tells the server to;
- Use the localhost address as the “left” side of the connection.
- Add any required firewall/iptables rules automatically.
- Accept any address as the “right” side of the connection.
- Assign virtual IP addresses to clients from DHCP.
- Use self as an xauth source.
- Use a pre-shared key for xauth.
- Use IKEv1 for Key Exchange (IKEv2 is better, however Android’s out of the box IPSEC client only supports IKEv1).
- Use AES-128 for encryption and key exchange with SHA1 as a hash and Diffie Hellman Group 2. This provides a good level of security – you can use higher standards if you wish, but this is already “good enough” against a current adversary. This Security Stack Exchange answer does a good job of explaining why AES128 is good enough. It would be better to use AES with the GCM cipher, but unfortunately the built-in Android VPN client does not support it.
Save the file and quit.
- Edit /etc/ipsec.secrets to read as follows;
username : XAUTH "password"
%any %any : PSK "presharedkey"
Replace username with a username you want your connecting client to use, replace password with an appropriate strong password and replace presharedkey with an even stronger password. While initally setting this up and testing, you may wish to use shorter and weak passwords but as soon as it is working change to using strong passwords. Without a strong password and pre-shared key the security that a VPN offers is just an illusion.
Save the file and quit.
- Restart the IPSEC server in order to load the new configuration using ipsec restart .
- Enable IP forwarding, without this your client will only be able to communicate with the IPSEC server. To do this edit /etc/sysctl.conf and uncomment the net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 line. Run sysctl -p to apply the change. This will persist across reboots.
- Finished! Your server should now be accepting IPSEC connections and forwarding any data.
Resolving Android MTU Issues
Unfortunately, Android relies on Path MTU direction across the tunnel to negotiate the correct MTU size with the destination server. Whilst PMTU is a good idea, across the internet it can be somewhat fragile as many firewalls are configured to drop ICMP traffic – including PMTU ICMP traffic! Consequently, Android falls back to using an MTU of 1500, which is far too big for packets going through the tunnel. Consequently, unless the MTU is changed, some communications won’t work – notably those which rely on transferring large amounts of data such as images on Twitter and Speed Test applications.
Fortunately, Zeitgeist has identified an easy work around using iptables. By using the following iptables rule, any packets with a large MTU can be re-written to have a more sensible one;
iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD -o eth0 \
-p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN \
-m tcpmss --mss 1361:1536 \
-j TCPMSS --set-mss 1360
Of course, this will apply to any traffic traversing the eth0 interface – VPN traffic or otherwise. If your server is only being used as a IPSEC VPN server this may be acceptable, otherwise you may wish to use the -s flag with a suitable netblock to only apply to traffic from your VPN clients.
Importantly, iptables rules applied in the fashion above do not persist across restarts. I highly suggest you use the iptables-persistent package to preserve your iptables rules across restarts.
You should also disable Path MTU discovery. Zeitergist suggests doing this by altering the proc filesystem, but a more permanent solution can be obtained by editing the sysctl.conf file as before to enable IPv4 forwarding.
- Edit /etc/sysctl.conf and add the line net.ipv4.ip_no_pmtu_disc=1 line. Save the file and exit.
- Run sysctl -p to apply the change. This will persist across reboots.
As mentioned previously, these instructions are based off an Android 5.0.1 device, but should be applicable to other versions of Android and iOS with slight modifications.
- Enter the VPN settings via Settings > Wireless & networks > More > VPN.
- Add a new VPN connection by tapping the plus icon.
- In the Name field, enter a user-friendly name for your VPN connection.
- In the Type drop-down, select “IPSec Xauth PSK”.
- In the Server address field, enter your router’s public IP or hostname.
- Leave the IPSec identifier field blank.
- In the IPSec preshared key field, enter the preshared key from your ipsec.secrets file.
- Tap Save.
- Tap on your new VPN connection to start connecting. When prompted, enter your username and password from your ipsec.secrets file, optionally save the account information and tap connect.
- If working, you should see the comment under your VPN’s name change to “Connected” and see a key icon in your notification area.
Enabling Always On
Now that your VPN is working, the always-on mode can be enabled. This will force the VPN to be connected at all times and block any data traffic until it has been connected – much easier than having to remember to connect each time.
- Enter the VPN settings via Settings > Wireless & networks > More > VPN.
- From the menu, select “Always-on VPN”.
- Select the name of the VPN profile you just created, and then tap OK.
After enabling as an always-on VPN, it should attempt to connect automatically and you’ll get a notification in the notification area.
The “Reset” action is useful if the VPN connection goes stale, which can occasionally happen.
Although IPSEC is a nice, standardised protocol, it can be very unforgiving to configuration issues. Viewing the log live while attempting to connect can be very useful in identifying connection issues. To do this, run tail -f /var/log/syslog .
no IKE config found for 188.8.131.52…184.108.40.206, sending NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN
This error indicates that none of your configuration entries matched the connection that was attempted. This is normally caused by a few things;
- Your configuration specifies IKEv1, but you’re using an IKEv2 client or vice-versa.
- Your left or right definitions are wrong – try temporally changing them to %any and $any.
no matching proposal found, sending NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN
Similar to above, this error indicates that your client and server couldn’t agree on a configuration. This error however is more likely to occur if your client and server don’t agree on what encryption mechanisms are possible for IKE and/or ESP, for example you’ve configured the server to only permit AES256-GCM-16, but your client can only do plain old AES256-CBC (Android, i’m looking at you). The lines above this error in the log should show what mechanisms your client supports.
no shared key found for ‘220.127.116.11’[18.104.22.168] – ‘(null)'[22.214.171.124]
This error indicates that a matching pre-shared key for this combination of server and client wasn’t found in the ipsec.secrets file. Either use %any %any or make sure they match your left and right definitions.
no XAuth method found
This error indicates that although you requested xauth authentication in your IPSEC server configuration, no way of performing it was known to the server. Make sure you’ve installed the strongswan-plugin-xauth-generic package.
Once connected over the VPN, some data connections fail.
This is likely because of the MTU issue listed earlier. Make sure you’ve got the iptables rule applied and that Path MTU discovery is disabled.
Hopefully this article was a useful reference for creating a simple but reasonably secure VPN for mobile devices. Future articles will build upon this base article to add additional functionality, such as certificate based authentication rather than usernames, passwords and pre-shared keys.
If you’ve run in to any problems, please note them in the comments so the article can be updated.
Following on from my previous post about building a IPsec tunnel between a Palo Alto firewall and a pfSense VM, I started trying to build a GRE tunnel between a OpenWRT router on my local network and the pfSense VM. Since GRE tunnels are unencrypted, it needs to traverse the IPSEC tunnel and not the internet! Nothing will stop you from running a GRE tunnel over the internet, but running unencrypted data over the internet is something you really do not want to do.
The main advantage of a GRE tunnel is that it has interfaces inside the tunnel. This means that you can easily route traffic over the tunnel and also run routing protocols over them. As noted in my previous post about building an IPsec tunnel, Policy Mode IPsec tunnels do not have interfaces inside the tunnel, and thus routing is much messier and routing protocols cannot be run over them. Routed IPsec Tunnels overcome this problem, but are not available in pfSense.
GRE support is available in OpenWRT since the Barrier Breaker RC3 release (August 2014). It’s very new and GRE tunnel configuration is not available via the UI so it’s not for the faint of heart. Indeed, while attempting to configure this I managed to break the LAN interface of my router and had to SSH back in over the internet to fix things, eventually resorting to wiping the configuration! pfSense has supported GRE for some time, but as with the previous post i’m using 2.2 Alpha.
As always, diagrams make everything easier! As you can see in the diagram, a GRE tunnel is established between the OpenWRT router and pfSense VM. As the tunnel is between 192.168.2.1 (OpenWRT) and 192.168.1.1 (pfSense) the traffic must traverse the encrypted IPsec tunnel. Of course, you will need the appropriate routes in place for the two hosts to communicate, but this is left as an exercise to the reader.
First things first, configuring pfSense.
- Create a new GRE tunnel via Interfaces > (Assign) > GRE.
- Set Parent interface to LAN.
- Set GRE remote address to the address of the OpenWRT router (192.168.2.1)
- Set GRE tunnel local address to the tunnel’s inner IP on the pfSense side (192.168.250.2).
- Set GRE tunnel remote address to the tunnel’s inner IP on the other end (192.168.250.1). Set the netmask to 30, as the tunnel only has two IP addresses on it.
- Click Save.
- Create a new Interface for the GRE tunnel via Interfaces > (Assign) > Interface assignments. This step must be performed after creating the GRE tunnel, otherwise the Add option for a new interface will not be available.
- A new OPT interface will be created and the Network port should automatically select your new GRE tunnel. Manually select if not.
- Create a rule to permit traffic via Firewall > Rules > Your New Interface. Set the rule as you wish, a permit all rule may be the best place to start.
All done! If you start a tcpdump on the pfSense system, filtering for traffic to and from the GRE tunnel destination (192.168.2.1), you’ll see a fair amount of ICMP traffic. This is because pfSense has automatically added the other side of the tunnel as a gateway and is monitoring it’s accessibility and latency via ping.
These instructions assume you’re comfortable accessing and configuring OpenWRT via SSH. If not, wait for GRE tunnels to get proper support in OpenWRT’s LuCI web GUI.
- Add the GRE tunnel and interface by editing /etc/config/interfaces. Use the following configuration as a template based on the previous diagram;
config interface 'mygre'
option ipaddr '192.168.2.1'
option peeraddr '192.168.1.1'
option mtu '1400'
option proto 'gre'
config interface 'mygre_static'
option proto 'static'
option ifname '@mygre'
option ipaddr '192.168.250.1'
option netmask '255.255.255.252'
A quick explanation of the options;
- mygre Interface – the GRE tunnel itself.
- ipaddr – The local IP address to bind the tunnel’s source to. Not required, but without this I found tunnel traffic was attempting to go over the internet rather than via the LAN!
- peeraddr – The remote IP address of the tunnel.
- mtu – Maximum packet size for the tunnel. GRE has an encapsulation overhead and then also goes over the IPsec tunnel which also has an overhead! Setting the MTU to 1400 is a nice safe value, but could be increased further.
- proto – The protocol of the interface. GRE in this case.
- mygre_static Interface – The local interface inside the GRE tunnel.
- proto – The protocol of the interface. Static in this case.
- ifname – A name for the interface. The at symbol allows this static interface to refer to the tunnel interface.
- ipaddr – The tunnel’s inner IP address on the OpenWRT side.
- netmask – The tunnel’s netmask. A /30 netmask is 255.255.255.252.
- Install the required packages kmod-gre and gre . This can be done on the LuCI interface via System > Software.
- Restart the networking daemon to bring up the new tunnel using /etc/init.d/network restart. You will briefly lose connectivity.
Done! Run an ifconfig to see if the new tunnel interface has been created. You should see a new gre-mygre interface. If you also run tcpdump filtering for traffic to and from the GRE tunnel destination (192.168.1.1) you should see the ICMP pings from the pfSense system and, hopefully, replies back from the OpenWRT router.
This forum thread on the OpenWRT forums has been particularly helpful in getting this tunnel up and running. Until GRE tunnels are documented in more depth, it serves as a very useful starting point for configuring a GRE tunnel on OpenWRT, along with the mailing list entries linked from the thread.
As part of an ongoing home network project, i’m trying to set up an IPsec VPN mesh between different sites – e.g. my own home, family home and VPS hypervisor located in an offsite datacentre. The reasoning behind this?
- Because I can and because it’s fun!
- To allow for easier resource sharing and remote diagnosis.
- To allow for an always-on VPN for mobile devices, both at home and away.
Being a home network, none of the equipment is particularly Enterprise grade, with the exception of the PA-200 firewall I have. This introduces a bit of a problem as route-based IPsec VPNs tend only to be supported on Enterprise-grade equipment (support for VTIs is just starting to come in on StrongSwan but has absolutely no documentation right now). Thus, I have to use a policy based VPN, which has limitations but will work for this specific use case.
Of course, any networking topic is greatly aided by a Visio diagram so here’s what i’m trying to achieve;
Palo Alto Configuration
These instructions are based off the web interface, but should be easily adaptable to the terminal. They also assume you’re running PAN-OS 6, but it’s likely similar for other versions.
- Add an IKE Gateway for Phase 1 negotiation via Network > Network Profiles > IKE Gateways > Add.
- Set a friendly name for the remote gateway.
- Select the interface it will originate from. This should be your WAN or Untrust interface.
- Select the IP address on the interface that it will originate from.
- Set Peer IP Type static.
- Set Peer IP to the IP of the remote gateway (126.96.36.199).
- Select Authentication as Pre-shared Key.
- Set a strong, random Pre-shared Key.
- Set Local Identification to IP address, enter your WAN/Untrust IP (188.8.131.52).
- Set Peer Identification to IP address, enter your gateway’s WAN IP (184.108.40.206).
- Click OK.
- Adjust the default IKE Crypto profile via Network > Network Profiles > IKE Crypto.
- Set DH Group to group2 only.
- Set Encryption to 3des only.
- Set Authentication to sha1 only.
- Set Lifetime to 8 hours.
- Click OK.
- Adjust the default IPsec Crypto Profile via Network > Network Profiles > IPsec Crypto.
- Set IPsec Protocol to ESP.
- Set Encryption to aes256 only.
- Set Authentication to sha512 only.
- Set DH Group to group2.
- Set Lifetime to 1 hours.
- Click OK.
- Add a new Tunnel Interface via Network > Interfaces > Tunnel.
- Click Add.
- Set an Interface Name and optionally number.
- Set the Virtual Router and Security Zone to your desired values. I used the main Virtual Router and a separate VPN Tunnel Security Zone.
- Click OK. Do not set an IP – this is a policy based VPN remember! There are no IPs on the tunnel interface as a result.
- Add an IPsec Tunnel for Phase 2 negotiation via Network > IPsec Tunnels.
- Click Add.
- Set a friendly name.
- Select the Tunnel Interface created in Step 4.
- Set Type to Auto Key.
- Select the IKE Gateway created in Step 1.
- Select the IPsec Crypto Profile credited/edited in Step 3.
- Enable Showing Advanced Options
- Enable Replay Protection.
- On the Proxy IDs tab, add a new Proxy ID. This is an important and often overlooked step when creating a Policy-Based IPsec VPN on Enterprise devices.
- Set a friendly name for the Proxy ID.
- Set the local IP netmask that will be routed (192.168.0.0/16).
- Set the remote IP netmask that will be routed (192.168.1.0/16).
- Set Protocol to Any.
- Click OK Twice.
- Adjust your security zone rules as appropriate and add a static route to the remote subnet (192.168.1.0) via the tunnel interface. You should know how to do this
All done! Now for the pfSense side.
These instructions are also for configuration via the web interface, but with pfSense you don’t really have much choice! They are however based off pfSense 2.2 Alpha as I needed to use this version for proper support under my virtualisation infrastructure, things may be slightly different in other versions. Experienced StrongSwan users should also be able to follow these instructions and adapting them to the StrongSwan configuration.
- Enable IPsec via VPN > IPsec, checking the Enable IPsec option and clicking save.
- Add an IKE Gateway for Phase 1 negotiation via VPN > IPsec.
- Set Key Exchange Version to V1. Palo Alto does not yet support V2.
- Set Internet Protocol to V4.
- Set Interface to the Interface of your external Interface (WAN).
- Set Remote gateway to the IP of the remote gateway (220.127.116.11).
- Set Authentication method to Mutual PSK.
- Set Negotiation mode to Main (Aggressive is less secure).
- Set My identifier to IP address and the External IP (18.104.22.168). This must match the Peer Identification set on the Palo Alto device.
- Set Peer identifier to IP address and the IP of the remote gateway (22.214.171.124). This must match the Local Identification set on the Palo Alto device.
- Set the Pre-Shared Key to the same Pre-Shared Key.
- Set Encryption Algorithm to 3DES.
- Set Hash Algorithm to SHA1.
- Set DH key group to 2 (1024 bit).
- Set Lifetime to 28800 seconds.
- Set NAT Traversal to Disable.
- Enable Dead Peer Detection.
- Click Save.
- Add an IPsec Tunnel for Phase 2 negotiation via VPN > IPsec and expanding the Phase 2 entries section underneath your new Phase 1 definition.
- Set Mode to Tunnel IPv4.
- Set Local Network Type to LAN subnet (192.168.1.0/24). This must match the Remote Proxy ID set on the Palo Alto device.
- Set the Remote Network Type to Network and enter the Address. This must match the Local Proxy ID set on the Palo Alto device.
- Set Protocol to ESP.
- Set Encryption Algorithms to AES 256 bits only. Do not set Auto.
- Set Hash Algorithms to SHA512 only.
- Set PFS key group to 2 (1024 bit) only.
- Set Lifetime to 3600 seconds.
- Click Save.
- Click Apply Changes.
Checking Everything is Working
Theoretically as soon as you complete the configuration on the pfSense side everything should start working. To verify this, try pinging the other side of the VPN tunnel, making sure to set the source IP appropriately. For example, from the Palo Alto you’d run;
ping source 192.168.0.1 host 192.168.1.1
If that works, then all traffic should work. On the Palo Alto side, it’s really important that you set the Security Zones and Static Route over the tunnel appropriately!
Verifying Status on the Palo Alto Device
Under Network > IPsec Tunnels check the status indicators for the IPsec tunnel. The first indicator shows phase 2 negotiation, the first indicator shows phase 1 negotiation. You want both of these to be green.
For a more detailed status, you can also run the following commands on the command line;
show vpn ike-sa gateway NAMEOFIKEGATEWAY
show vpn ipsec-sa tunnel NAMEOFTUNNEL:NAMEOFPROXYID
The first command should show phase 1 and 2 negotiation, the second command should show tunnel information.
Verifying Status on pfSense
Under Status > IPsec check the Status of the Phase 1 connection, it should be established. Expand the child SA entries section to show the Phase 2 connection. It should show the local and remote subnets.
Hopefully this has helped you get a policy-based IPsec VPN running between a Palo Alto device and pfSense. It’s a shame there’s not greater support for route-based IPsec VPNs in the Open Source world, but I will certainly be watching the addition of VTI support to StrongSwan with great interest. In the mean time, this solution does the job!
If you’re following these instructions, good luck! If you’re still stuck and can’t work out why, Palo Alto have a good page on diagnosing IPsec problems.
OSX users, welcome back.
Recently, I enabled SSL by default for this site. If you try and browse to a non-HTTPS version of this site, you’ll be instantly redirected to the HTTPS version without loading any content. There’s no real security reason behind this, it’s just another thing I wanted to play around with and worry not, i’ll be doing another how-to blog entry soon.
A few weeks after I enabled it though, a friend mentioned that they couldn’t connect. Indeed, while attempting to browse using Chrome they received an alarming message stating that Chrome couldn’t connect to the real blog.kingj.net. Normally, this sort of error would be reserved for a man-in-the-middle attempt where someone presented an invalid certificate and pretended to be this site. This was most definitely not the case, but the “technical details” didn’t help much either – claiming that the certificate was invalid and malformed. However, when using Chrome, and other browsers, on my system and mobile devices, I received no such error. Online SSL validators also didn’t find any errors. The only difference was that my friend was using OSX.
Another OSX-using friend identified the issue however – I was using a 8192-bit key on my certificate, and since 2006 OSX has not supported key lengths greater than 4096 bits. The reasoning behind this is that it stops cryptographic Denial of Service attacks, but even so, modern systems have no problem handling 8192-bit keys.
It is possible to change the maximum key size that OSX will accept, however this process needs to be performed on every OSX client that’s connecting, not really a ‘fix’ for a website operator. Indeed, the only real fix that would allow OSX users to seamlessly connect to this site would be to downgrade the key size. From a security perspective, this isn’t too much of an issue. 2048-bit keys are currently considered appropriately strong and 4096-bit keys are only used in paranoid or high-security situations. Thus, I decided to get a new certificate using a 4096-bit key and OSX users can now connect again without issue.
My thanks go to Harvey for first alerting me to this issue and supplying the screenshot above, and to InnerLambada for letting me know the cause.